• 2023 Putnam Competition Result

    We very excited to report that our Putnam team ranked 8th, honorable mention, among 471 institutions in the 2023 Putnam math competition.Our team members this year were Vincent Trang, Daniel Yuan, Omar Habibullah, and Andrew Parker.Vincent Trang ranked 43rd and Daniel Yuan ranked 64th among 3,857 participants. Read More
  • Simons Fellows - Darvas, Kanigowski, Rubinstein

    Congratulations to Tamas Darvas, Adam Kanigowski, and Yanir Rubinstein for being named Simons Fellows. Read More
  • Doron Levy is elected 2024 Class of Fellows of the AMS

    Congratulations to Dr. Doron Levy, as Fellow of the American Mathematical Society, Class of 2024 (https://www.ams.org/cgi-bin/fellows/fellows_by_year.cgi)!  Dr. Levy was elected  ``For his contributions to Mathematical Oncology and Mathematical Biology".  Read More
  • Scott Wolpert to lead NSF-funded project on DEI in mathematics and statistics

    Congratulations to Scott Wolpert, professor emeritus of mathematics, who was named principal investigator of a new project to improve diversity, equity and inclusion in mathematics departments. The project is funded by a $600,000 grant from the NSF, and it will provide DEI training to six representatives of math and statistics departments Read More
  • Abba Gumel Featured in Scientific American Article

    Congratulations to Abba Gumel being featured in a new Scientific American Article. The title is “How Mathematics Can Predict and Help Prevent the Next Pandemic” (link to the article). What a great advertisement to Maryland. It is a great honor to have Abba as our colleagues.   Congratulations Abba! Read More
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5


Hilbert's axioms for Euclidean Geometry. Neutral Geometry: The consistency of the hyperbolic parallel postulate and the inconsistency of the elliptic parallel postulate with neutral geometry. Models of hyperbolic geometry. Existence and properties of isometries.


1 course with a minimum grade of C- from (MATH240, MATH341, MATH461).

Level of Rigor


Sample Textbooks

The Four Pillars of Geometry, by J. Stillwell

Foundations of Geometry, by G.A. Venema.


If you like this course, you might also consider the following courses

Additional Notes


Logical deficiencies in Euclidean Geometry

Flawed proofs

Correction of some flawed proofs by clearly stating certain postulates and giving rigorous deductions

Overview of the structure of Euclidean Geometry

Importance of Euclid's Parallel Postulate as opposed to the other postulates

Equivalence of certain postulates (Play fair, etc) to Euclid's Parallel Postulate

Absolute or Neutral geometry. Work of Legendre and Saccheri

Negation of Euclid's Parallel Postulate; non-Euclidean geometry.

Discussion of models for non-Euclidean geometry

Axiom systems

Incidence axiom and ruler postulate


Segments, Rays and Convex sets

Angles and Triangles

Pasch's Postulate and Plane Separation Postulate

Perpendiculars and inequalities

SAS postulate

Parallel postulates

Models for non-Euclidean geometry

Proof of the consistency of non-Euclidean geometry by means of models

  • 1
  • 2